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Featuring more than 1,000 searchable technical papers, business features, country commentaries and fashion articles from editions of World Leather going back to 2002. The papers are categorised into nine topics to make the library easy to navigate.

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87 Items Found

Assessing the biodegradability of leather
Spanish research institute Inescop has developed technology that can help tanners make a quick assessment of the impact that new products and processes will have on the biodegradability of their leather.
World Leather - Jun/July 2020
Microscopy techniques applied to leather
The use of different types of microscopes and their application to the leather sector is of importance. Through these investigative techniques, the National Italian Leather Research Institute (SSIP) also offers additional specialist support aimed at verifying further crucial features in the leather sector, as in the case of the certification of authenticity of leather and hides, as well as the origin and characterisation of animal hair.
World Leather - Jun/July 2020
The ongoing value of waste
Just as tanners are proud of the circular economy cachet that their use of waste from the meat and dairy sectors gives, they have to make the fullest possible use of the waste their own production generates too.
World Leather - Apr/May 2020
The dynamics of leather combustion
Leather is a combustible material and must be treated with appropriate flameretardant products to pass fire-prevention testing. This is part one of a twopart article on this subject from Ikem. With more than 40 years’ experience of offering beamhouse, tanning, retanning and finishing products to the global leather industry, Ikem became part of the GSC group at the start of 2019.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2019
Green Beamhouse – a toolbox for sustainable, high-quality leather
The arrangement of wastewater treatment plants and the requirements in terms of incoming wastewater vary from country to country and from region to region. This requires tanneries to adjust their processes and to focus on the reduction of certain wastewater components. With “Green Beamhouse”, Lanxess offers a toolbox to independently address all critical wastewater limits, giving tanneries the opportunity to improve sustainability without compromising quality or cost.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2019
Taking tanning to the next level with an improved pickle product
Although chrome tanning is already at what leather chemicals manufacturer Lanxess calls “a high level of performance”, it explains that it is working to make further improvements to this tanning method.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
Solutions for the skills gap
Digital skills are needed on factory floors if leather and leathergoods manufacturers in Europe are to enjoy success in the future. Industry figures believe they have identified the skills gaps that need addressing most urgently and the European Commission is offering funding to help make this ‘upskilling’ happen.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
A future focused on innovation
Tanning group PrimeAsia hosted an open-house event at its tannery in Vietnam in March to celebrate the completion of an expansion project it began in 2015.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
Sampling plans for evaluation of leather physical properties
Claims cost money and cause frustration. Tanners need to take a systematic approach to sampling to avoid complaints and criticism from customers.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
Leather project will boost jobs and exports
A start-up venture that aims to build a world-class leather and finished product operation in Nigeria launched in early 2019. The initiative, called the Pan African Leather project, will involve setting up a new tannery, a new shoe factory and other artisan workshops for finished products in Sokoto in the north-west of the country, creating employment, reducing poverty, empowering women and young people and reclaiming the region’s leather past.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2019
Leather – a sustainable choice
World Leather technical editor, Matthew Abbott, reports from the fourth annual Lanxess leather symposium, which took place at the company’s headquarters in Cologne in January.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2019
Studies on the determination of pH value and difference figure of leather
The precise data of the pH and difference figure determination procedure of aqueous extracts from leather according to ISO 4045 were determined by means of an interlaboratory test. At the same time, single procedural steps were examined closely in order to detect their impact on the result.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2018
The needs of the many
A number of UK footwear companies have come together with the British Footwear Association (BFA) to launch a new nationally accredited apprenticeship standard that it is hoped will help train the next generation of shoemakers.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2018
Naturally individual
When ‘no-waste’ becomes the new luxury, consumers will start to accept scars in cars, says automotive leather expert Florian Schrey. The upside is that ‘individualisation’ is becoming more and more important in purchase decisions and, because every hide is unique, car seats with leather upholstery will, naturally, offer the cheapest individualisation possible.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2018
How Italy can meet growing demand for automotive leather
Automotive leather is growing in Italy, with the market more than doubling since 2002. But it is still only a handful of the country’s 1,200 tanners that have invested in the technology and space required to add automotive to the range of markets they serve.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2018
Arzignano is the leather industry’s Silicon Valley
The much travelled international sales director of leather chemicals group GSC, Diego Cisco, argues that the Arzignano tanning cluster, near his company’s headquarters in northern Italy, can offer an example of leadership, innovation and entrepreneurial spirit to the entire global leather industry.
World Leather - Jun/July 2018
greenLIFE 5: Lifecycle assessment of the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment service at the Arzignano treatment works
Green Leather Industry for the Environment (greenLIFE) is a project run by a group of industry partners in Italy’s Arzignano tanning cluster. The project partners have committed to sharing their findings by publishing a series of papers in World Leather. The fifth of six greenLIFE articles comes from the cluster’s wastewater treatment service provider, Acque del Chiampo.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2017
Ten key issues facing the leather supply chain
The leather industry and the leather chemicals industry have faced many challenges together. With greater social and environmental awareness, the pace of change continues to increase and the challenges that arise require faster, smarter responses. The ten issues included in this article are by no means the only ones that the leather supply chain will have to address in the near future, but it is worth examining them to see what progress has been made and how this could also help in other areas.
World Leather - June/July 2017
Studies on the determination of thickness, mass per unit area and the apparent density of leather
A method to verify and determine precision data from the procedures for determining thickness (ISO 2589), apparent density and mass per unit area of leather (ISO 2420) was used in an inter-laboratory test of leather samples. This study was on behalf of a Leather Testing and Assessment commission set up by VGCT, the German Association of Tanning Chemists and Technicians.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2017
RSL, ZDHC and the brands
Leather chemicals manufacturer Lanxess ran a successful two-day seminar in Cologne in January, offering representatives of a wide range of finished product brands detailed information and in-depth discussion on the subject of how restricted substance lists are affecting the production of leather.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2016
Stahl celebrates 60 years in Waalwijk with special automotive events
Leather chemicals manufacturer Stahl held a series of events at the end of September to celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of moving to its current headquarters just outside Waalwijk in the Netherlands.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2015
Mercier Turner introduces the CNC Splitting Machine
The endless band knife leather splitting machine first conceived and built in the nineteenth century has ever since, proudly and justly, been regarded as the most sophisticated precision piece of equipment used in the leather making industry. Despite many changes since in structure, control, components, configuration, feeding and extraction systems, the actual mechanism of the splitting operation has remained much the same. What the Mercier Turner “Newsplit” machine offers is advanced control of the setting, feeding and precision in the splitting action itself. Profile and function of band knife, substance control mechanisms and transport systems is now precision programmed and controlled by Windows CNC.
World Leather - June/July 2015
Extra complexity after Lear makes its move
Relationships in the automotive supply chain have always been interesting, not least for tanners, who usually sell to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) but supply finished leather or cut parts to specialist tier-one suppliers of seats, steering wheels and other car interior components. In 2014, one of these specialist tier-ones, Lear Corporation, added extra complexity and extra tension to this panorama by acquiring a major, global automotive tanning group, Eagle Ottawa. This article examines Lear’s reasons for taking this step and offers a view of the likely reaction among other tanners and tier-ones, and among OEMs in the months and years following the deal.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2015
The machinery company that wants to bring space-age telemetry to tanneries
Chemistry is vital in producing leather on an industrial scale, but as it moves into its fifth decade in the business, Italian machinery manufacturer Erretre is determined to help tanners see the importance of physics too.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2014
Microscopic observation of tensile testing on leather fibre bundles
The simultaneous acquisition of data on tensile force and extension values, as well as sequences of microscopic images, enables the process of fibre extension and rupture to be optically traced and documented. This information reveals the way that the fibres crack. For example, it can show if either a cracking or a twisting of the sub-units occurs during the breaking process. Such information can be subsequently used to gain insight into ways to possibly improve behaviour, and within material modelling.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2014
Centro Tecnologico das industrias do Couro (CTIC) - 20th anniversary
The Leather Technology Centre, Portugal, was created as a result of an initiative between the leather industry and the public institutions IAPMEI (Institute for Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises) and INETI (Portuguese Institute for Engineering and Technology). Known as CTIC it was inaugurated in 1994.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2014
The revision of the colour fastness to rubbing test on leathers (ISO 11640)
This paper is presented by FILK on behalf of the VGCT Commission “Leather Testing and Assessment”. Inter-laboratory tests on the determination of colour fastness of leather to rubbing showed good consistency of results between the participating laboratories. The two evaluation methods that were possible - visual and colorimetric - proved to be equivalent, and both the mean values and variations of the results were almost equal. Results in the limit ranges (rating 4-5 and rating 1) showed good compliance, and differences in felt thicknesses did not affect laboratory procedures.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2013
Water abstraction, salinity and tanneries: The Ranipet CEPT, a complete solution
A combination of reverse osmosis (RO) and evaporation/condensation has ensured that 95% of the volume of effluent entering the Ranipet CETP plant is returned to the tanners as high quality water for reuse in a massive closed loop. No liquid is discharged from the plant, and the operation has almost completely stopped the abstraction/use of potable water for leather manufacture in the district
World Leather - Apr/May 2013
31st International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists Societies (IULTCS) Congress 2011
The XXXI IULTCS Congress held in Valencia, Spain, in September attracted almost 280 people from 28 countries. A total of 51 lectures were given during the three-day event and a total of 53 poster displays were shown.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2011
Relationships in the formation of hexavalent chrome [Cr(VI)] (Part 2)
Leder Institute Reutlingen (LGR) has examined the occurrence of toxic materials in a variety of chrome leathers and leather articles for many years. The Health & Safety department of the German government has shown that some leather goods - such as gloves, shoes and watchstraps - which come into intimate contact with the skin, can contain Cr(VI) in significant quantities. The federal authority has decided in Section 18 of the Consumer Regulations(1) to prohibit Cr(VI) detection limits of the analytical procedure above 3 mg/kg for leathers in daily use.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2011
EasyWhite Tan leather: A tanning evolution
This paper describes a new white tanning system from Clariant for leathers suitable for automotive, shoe upper and other classic leather types. The absence of common salt as normally used in the pickle stage has significant implications within clean technology and the wider environment.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2011
Link-Lock: an explanation of the chemical stabilisation of collagen
Chemical modifications of collagen, of the type known in the leather tanning industry, can raise the denaturation temperature, from 60ºC in its natural state, up to 130ºC. There are only a few chemical reactions known to be capable of achieving the highest values and these have long been assumed to be unrelated.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2010
Linta splitting machine sails under the Gemata flag
To help our readers and the users of splitting machinery we highlight some of the important salient features of the Lintasplit system.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2010
Elements in the leather industry: Part 2
The elements of the periodic table have a diverse and interesting history. This article will attempt to bring some richness to the elements that are used or are present in the manufacture of leather or the treatment of its waste.
World Leather - 04 - June/July 2008
Elements in the leather industry (Part 1)
A paper outlining the importance of chemical elements in leather production.
World Leather - 03 - May 2008
Companies act to keep chromium VI out
The problem of chromium VI does not appear to go away, and is being taken very seriously by fashion groups, especially those selling children's footwear. When health matters – and especially children's health – are considerations, any concerns of the consumer will be driven by what is perceived as opposed to any technical debate. This article is based on a presentation given in World Footwear Jan/’Feb 2008, and is a timely reminder to the industry that vigilance remains of extreme importance.
World Leather - 03 - May 2008
Improving the traditional vegetable tanning process
Vegetable tanned leathers are typical of the high-quality leathers produced within the tanning district of Santa Croce sull’Arno, Italy. This is the oldest and most classic type of leather, combining the values of quality and tradition. To safeguard and improve these traditional leathers, it is recognised that the tanning industry not only needs to pay more attention to the process, but also employ new technologies to guarantee better production constancy.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
A new aqueous transfer coating system for splits
Transfer coating of splits is a well-known and established process in leather finishing. The physical properties and the optical advantages are significant. At present the stateof- the-art technology is solvent-based systems, applied either via spraying technology or with rollers and doctor blades onto silicone matrices. These matrices have to be made individually and, because of the sensitivity, have to be handled and stored very carefully.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
The Colombian leather sector: A renaissance banquet of feast and famine!
The basis of the Renaissance was the willingness of people to adopt technology and concepts from other cultures. The Colombian leather sector, while very traditional, nevertheless still has a positive Renaissance outlook. Since there has been a very deep relationship between cattle ranching and leather, these facts can help explain the character of the leather sector.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
Back to Basics: A Framework for Leather Manufacture - Essay 22
Leather drying and conditioning: Paste drying
World Leather - 08 - Dec/Jan 2007
Book review: From collagen to leather—the theoretical background
A review of the long-awaited text book, produced by BASF Service Centre, which addresses key technical issues with the objective of providing a better and clearer understanding of the leather-making process.
World Leather - 08 - Dec/Jan 2007
The scientific and commercial significance of variations in strength and stretch in leather
Any variations in physical properties—especially the degree of stretch under load and the tensile strength—need to be accommodated within a manufactured item to both extract the best value from the leather and, in the longer term, to ensure customer satisfaction. This applies to almost all items manufactured from leather—garments, leather goods, furniture, automotive components, and footwear—as there is a need for shape retention during wear and use.
World Leather - 07 - Nov 2007
Back to Basics: A Framework for Leather Manufacture — Essay 21
Leather drying and conditioning: Vacuum drying
World Leather - 07 - Nov 2007
The 110th Annual SLTC conference 2007
The 110th annual conference of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists was held in Chester UK on Saturday September 29, 2007, the event being attended by 77 people from the leather and associated industries. In total eight technical papers were presented including The Atkin Memorial lecture, “The beamhouse, foundation for leather making—experience during 50 years”, given by John Basford.
World Leather - 07 - Nov 2007
Back to Basics: A framework for leather manufacture. Essay 18
Leather drying and conditioning: The physics of drying.
World Leather - 04 - June/July 2007
Back to Basics: A framework for leather manufacture
Dry, flat and extended leathers - Part 3. Developing the properties of first-time dried leathers.
World Leather - 02 - April 2007
Back to Basics: Essay 17
Dry, flat and extended leathers: Part 1
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2006
The soaking, unhairing and liming process: Part 1 of 3
The practicalities of the soaking process.
World Leather - Nov 2006
Swelling within the leather manufacturing process
Swelling is the increase of volume of a material due to the absorption and/or retention of a solvent, by structural changes or heat. The word implies a shift from the norm, or a comparison to a less distended state.
World Leather - Nov 2006
Back to Basics: A framework for leather manufacture - Essay 15
The splitting machine and its tools in operation.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2006
The properties of leather: strength and stretch
Strength and stretch across the skin area and the effect of splitting.
World Leather - June/July 2006
Water management
Driven by legislation: The concept of zero discharge for water.
World Leather - April 2006
Otzi died with his boots on
In 1991 a deep frozen corpse was discovered at 3,210 metres on top of a mountain on the border between Austria and Italy. He has been nicknamed Otzi and has been the subject of intense scientific research. The ancient footwear fascinated Petr Hlavacek from Zlin's Thomas Bata University who has reconstructed Otzi's boots.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2006
The scientific detective: Test methods and their importance fior specifications
How do you find the right balance between over specification and ensuring the correct quality level?
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2006
Back to Basics: Modifying the skin structure & Hides and skins and mechanical forces
Essay 1: Before first-time drying and the formation of a flat stable substrate, the conversion of hides and skins into leather can be viewed as two distinct stages: the removal of unwanted skin components and the location of specific materials within the collagen structure. Essay 2: The role of the process vessel in leather manufacture is greater than that of a chemical reactor. While chemical reactions take place, considerable forces are applied to the goods undergoing process. The way these forces are received, and the outcome, strongly affects the chemical distribution within each hide or skin.
World Leather - Nov 2005
Optimum chrome tanning of hides and modified Thrublu process for lime-split hides
Chrome tanning for a long time enjoyed a unique position amongst tanners and almost 90% of leather produced is chrome tanned. A number of studies have been published suggesting that Chromium(III) itself may be toxic at higher levels and Chromium(VI) is a known carcinogen. So, tanners have to consider how best to modify their tanning process for better exhaustion of chrome and look for alternative means to minimise the impact of tanning on the environment.
World Leather - Nov 2005
Anaerobic digestion of tannery sludge: Lowering salinity to reduce sludge volume
An investigation was performed to minimise the volume of tannery sludges by bio-degradation. To overcome the inhibiting effects caused by inorganic solubles used in leather manufacture, a novel technique was employed to reduce the salts content of these sludges. This article looks at the success of this investigation.
World Leather - Nov 2005
The diffusion barrier within the unhairing process
World Leather takes a look at the hair-saving processes for bovine hides that are being applied in tanneries in several countries to replace traditional hair burning systems.
World Leather - Oct 2005
Münzing goes for growth: 175 years on
Older than Bayer or BASF and still 100% family owned, Münzing Chemie GmbH remains rooted in same location where it was founded nearly two centuries ago. Its technologies have evolved but yet retain an uncanny resemblance to the procedures and the advanced thinking of the founder. Leveraging these technologies into the 21st century has been the responsibility of the sixth generation and the young Michael Münzing seems well prepared to show that the time of successful family companies is back in the ascendancy.
World Leather - Oct 2005
The milling drum – from blunt instrument to sophisticated process vessel
There are several areas in tannery machinery where the application of modern technology seems to have been an over-elaboration. The milling drum, however, is a real exception, where the application of modern sensors, control technology and automated handling has turned a blunt instrument into a sophisticated process vessel, capable of repeatedly reproducing subtle effects in the nature of the leather produced.
World Leather - Oct 2005
Hides and skins: Temperature and physical change
This article takes a look at the profound influence temperature has on the physical properties of hides and skins within every stage of leather manufacture.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2005
Back to Basics: A Framework for Leather Manufacture; ESSAY 4; Charge and fixation
The rate of fixation between the collagen structure and pre tanning/tanning/retanning agents, dyes, and many polymeric resins and fatliquors is determined by the
World Leather - June/July 2005
Back to Basics: A Framework for Leather Manufacture; Water within the skin structure
Water plays a major role within the living skin, in making leather, and the manufacture and behaviour of the final product. Nevertheless, the way that water is held
World Leather - May 2005
Back to Basics: A Framework for Leather Manufacture; Flat and predictable leather
Hides and skins are naturally rounded and fully contoured to the shape of the living animal. In addition the skin allows flexibility of movement and protection, but these needs
World Leather - May 2005
The real cost of a kilo of salt: Part 1
The first part of two looks at salinity in the tanning process: responsibility and actions, and the elimination of salt from acid pickles.
World Leather - May 2005
Back to Basics: A framework for leather manufacture
Introduction to the series.This is a complex subject, but this new work sets out a structure where the better-known aspects of leather chemistry and machine processing operate. With roots within the physics and craft of leather making, it is hoped that technicians will find this series of interest and value.
World Leather - April 2005
The role of bound and free water in the liming process
In World Leather August/September 2004, observations were presented showing that if limed hides were washed at different temperatures, a warmer wash caused an increase in softness and hide relaxation, but without change in the total water content. References were made to earlier investigations that address aspects that need taking into account. Translations and detailed studies of these reports are summarised in the following paper.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2004
Back to Basics: Environmental - Part 10 of 10
Solid wastes and sludges: The most effective ways to minimise the problem presented by solid waste and sludges are reduce waste at source, view by-products as potential raw materials and manage sludges effectively.
World Leather - Nov 2004
Back to Basics: Environmental - Part 9 of 10
Sludge handling: Gross solids as sludges from primary settling are pumped from the base of the settling tank. Having a solids content of about 4%, these require dewatering before disposal. In hot climates this dewatering is commonly performed in sludge drying beds using a mix of drainage and evaporation.
World Leather - Oct 2004
Back to Basics: Environmental - Part 8 of 10; Other options for treatment
There are many variations that can be applied to effluent treatment. For example, the primary settling stage (b) is often omitted, but in this event there is more attention to pre-sceening (c). If iron
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2004
The glass transition temperature of leather and its implications to the leather industry
A comprehensive understanding of the physical and mechanical behaviour of leather is essential within leather processing and leather goods manufacture. Glass transition is the single most important thermal property to study because it is directly linked to molecular flexibility, thus affecting leather performance in all temperature related operations.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2004
Observations: Temperature related relaxation within liming and other wet processes
It is well known that by liming at higher temperatures, say, 29°C instead of 25°C, that hides and skins are softer, show less draw and growth marks, and appear less swollen. In addition, after fleshing there is a greater loss of fine wrinkles in
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2004
Back to Basics: Environmental - Part 7 of 10
Secondary effluent treatment: After separation of the solids from the effluent by primary clarification, the supernatant is delivered for aerobic biological treatment. Known as the activated sludge process, the effluent requires continuous aeration to ensure a constant supply of oxygen for the bacteria, and to keep the bacterial flocs that develop in suspension.
World Leather - June/July 2004
Back to Basics: Environmental - Part 6 of 10
Primary effluent treatment: It is recognised that the first stage in the treatment of wastes from any process operation is to use the most appropriate materials and optimise performance. However, even after applying the best available technology to leather making, waste remains.
World Leather - May 2004
Reducing salinity in the pickle-tanning process. Part 2
Salinity is a cause for concern in tannery waste waters as it is unaffected by effluent treatment and more that 25% of salinity can be generated from the pickle-chrome tanning process.
World Leather - May 2004
The theory of tanning
For thousands of years the knowledge of tanning was passed from generation to generation. But it is only in the last 150 years that serious research started.
World Leather - April 2004
Reducing salinity in the pickle-tanning process. Part 1 of 2
The following paper describes a series of structured investigations with the objective of eliminating common salt from the pickle-chrome tanning process.
World Leather - April 2004
Microscopical studies in leather manufacture. Part 4 of 4: Finishing
The coatings produced in leather finishing are generally resin polymers or protein based applied using water as the medium. These finishes also contain other components such as pigments, dyes and matting agents to adjust the appearance of the leather.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2004
Aqueous degreasing and the custom designed surfactant
The degreasing of hides and skins can be considered state of the art. Excluding the use of solvents, the most effective water-based products are nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs).
World Leather - Nov 2003
Microscopical studies in leather manufacture - Part 3 of 4: Post tanning
The post tanning processes largely dictate the physical characteristics of a leather such as strength, softness extensibility and colour.
World Leather - Oct 2003
Saving our past for the future
John Waterer was the first to carry out detailed studies on the conservation of leathers. Many of these techniques had been developed and applied in previous decades for the care and preservation of leather bookbindings.
World Leather - Oct 2003
Environmentally sound - the manufacture of dog-chews
Dog-chew products are an excellent way of adding value to lime splits. This is especially so when the flesh splits represent a high proportion of the splitting yield.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2003
Iron tannage: an alternative chrome-free tanning system
Due to ecotoxicological reasons and the growing need for recyclability, today’s classical tanning systems are under close review.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2003
Round hides into flat leather
The need for flat shoe upper material, with predictable stretch, set and ‘memory’, are well appreciated in footwear manufacture. Leather can provide these properties. Nevertheless, given the basic uniqueness of each raw hide, the degree of uniformity achieved as a result of conversion into leather is perhaps surprising.
World Leather - June/July 2003
Vertical integration: the Forward Group of Companies
Forward Group is one of the largest, fastest growing leather and footwear manufacturing companies in India. The group, a conglomerate of tannery, shoe upper, full shoes and moulded sole manufacturing divisions, started as a small tannery producing EI Goat skins 35 years ago on its present site on the outskirts of Chennai.
World Leather - June/July 2003
26 bones, 107 ligaments and 19 muscles
The whole foundation of designing a well fitting, comfortable shoe lies in understanding the nature of the foot for which it is intended. Considering the volume of leather used for shoes, Alan Weston, SATRA Technology Centre, provides a timely reminder of the structure of the foot and how footwear can enhance or damage its function.
World Leather - June/July 2003
Back to basics: Part 7 of 9. Retanning, dyeing and softening
It is not possible to build the exact properties required into the leathers during the tanning operation. This applies in particular to chrome leathers, so it is common practice to develop the leather character by further wet processing of the shaved goods.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2002

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