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Featuring more than 1,000 searchable technical papers, business features, country commentaries and fashion articles from editions of World Leather going back to 2002. The papers are categorised into nine topics to make the library easy to navigate.

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FINISHING: Retanning, dyeing and fatliquoring; Drying & pre-finishing; Leather Finishing

76 Items Found

The eco-friendly future of the spraying machine
For any transformation of leather there is always energy use and consumption. It is the responsibility of the manufacturing companies, those who produce and design the machinery, to make the process not only economically advantageous but also virtuous and highly compatible with the needs of our planet. Most pollution problems for tanneries are caused by the production of wastewater, sludge, tanned and nontanned waste but also volatile and particulate emissions into the atmosphere. Following the introduction of the Spraystar EVO, as reported in World Leather June/July 2019, Gemata believes it has now improved on the original design.’
World Leather - Jun/July 2020
ECOTAN: efficiency made simple
Ecotan is Erretre’s new option for automated spray machines. A spray booth that achieves excellent results, designed to take into account the finer details but also the bigger picture with regards the most important requirements of leather finish coating operations.
World Leather - Apr/May 2020
Nemomilling system – application technology for crust or finished leathers
Started in 1957 as a family company, Dermochimica has found its place in the leather industry as a producer of chemical solutions for the entire leather process. Built on the principles of sustainable innovation, quality and service, the Nemomilling system is a new range of products aimed at adding value and satisfying various needs. Able to be used on all types of leather, from crust to finished, the system can be used in numerous applications.
World Leather - Apr/May 2020
Flesh-side resin coating
Gemata’s 30 years of experience in the production of complete finishing lines, comprising roller machines, drying tunnels and spray booths, offers precision and reliability. Adding to this, Starface is a new, patented roller-coating machine specifically designed to apply a coating on the flesh side of hides.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2019
Taking retanning to the next level with a new innovative amphoteric polymer
A new product from Lanxess can be what the company calls a tool for increasing the efficiency of the overall retanning process, saving products, improving fixation and reducing environmental load.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2019
Hot off the press
Evolution Tech, a relatively new entrant to the leather world, is bringing its low temperature, pre-heating roller press to the world of embossing. World Leather spoke to Evolution Tech’s Antonello Marchino about the machine and the technology employed.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2019
On the lookout for excellence with spray booths
With a solid history of roller-coating machines, Gemata has been producing machinery for leather finishing since 1972. With recent innovations, such as finishing lines complete with spray-booth and drying-tunnels fitted with heat-recovery and energy-saving systems, the Spraystar-Evo is the company’s latest offering. A positive initial market reaction to the Spraystar-Evo has made the company optimistic about achieving similar results as those obtained with its roller-coating machines.
World Leather - Jun/July 2019
Hides go to waste
Demand for high-quality leather remains strong, but no one in the global industry can be in any doubt that lower-value material is harder to sell than at any time in living memory. As a result, what we thought would never happen has come to pass: hides really are going to waste.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
Radio frequency drying
Cartigliano is no stranger to leather drying. For nearly 60 years, the company has specialised in making machinery for drying and conditioning leather. At the Tanning Tech exhibition in February, World Leather was given a demonstration of its new radio frequency (RF) drying unit, which is suitable for finishing and for crust leather production.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
Challenges in China around VOCs and leather’s smell
New legislation in China imposes strict limits on emissions in car interiors, changing the requirements original equipment manufacturers face when testing automotive leather. In turn, this will have an impact on automotive leather manufacturers. Leather chemicals company Lanxess has shared details of some of the work it has done to help tanners respond effectively.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2018
Options on anti-soiling
Consumers are becoming more and more demanding and want protection in their car interiors against soiling from everyday items such as denim jeans and coffee. OEMs are picking and choosing what type of protection they want their automotive leathers to have, which makes it hard for tanners to test effectively. Here, the international sales director of Italy’s leather chemicals group GSC, Diego Cisco, points to the help that tanners can secure from their supply chain partners in addressing this complex question.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2018
Consistency is key
The chief executive of tannery machinery manufacturer Bergi, Mauro Bergozza, says the company’s latest ironing and embossing machine, SuperVario, can be especially effective for automotive leather manufacturers.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2018
Tannery to perfection
Dr Toni Polato, president of Italian tannery machinery manufacturer Cartigliano, explains how contract drying has helped its facility in Mexico become an important player in the automotive leather market.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2018
Live and let live
Even if market demand went through the roof, there are too few hides in the world for leather to be the only material of choice for all the footwear, seats, clothes, bags and belts that people buy and use. Other materials are a must, and always have been. A consensus may be starting to build in the leather industry that it is fair enough to try to live side by side with alternative materials, but only if they treat leather with the respect it deserves.
World Leather - Jun/July 2018
New technology requires hard work
New machines from Cartigliano take time to be developed.
World Leather - Apr/May 2018
Waterproofing innovation
Lanxess has introduced a self-emulsifying polymer that it says can help tanners produce leather with high levels of waterproofness from variable raw material.
World Leather - Apr/May 2018
Innovation and research in leather finishing using release paper
Machinery manufacturer Gemata has taken steps to bring its release paper application technology up to date.
World Leather - Apr/May 2018
A wearable technology for leather products
Evolution Leather Consulting, a start-up from Turkey but based in London, has patented a process for producing photoluminescent leather and is working with a tanner to develop a new range called GloTech Leather.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2018
Arzignano — an area of modern tannery machinery development
In his farewell article for World Leather, machinery expert Walter Landmann gives an account of the rise of the tanning machinery sector in Arzignano in northern Italy, with a particular focus on some of the new or updated machines that Bergi has brought to market in recent times.
World Leather - Apr/May 2017
Focus upon intelligent milling drums
Trissino in Italian Vicenza province is home to Revomec Srl, a newly established engineering business now concentrating on designing and manufacturing a family of milling drums.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2017
Studies on the determination of thickness, mass per unit area and the apparent density of leather
A method to verify and determine precision data from the procedures for determining thickness (ISO 2589), apparent density and mass per unit area of leather (ISO 2420) was used in an inter-laboratory test of leather samples. This study was on behalf of a Leather Testing and Assessment commission set up by VGCT, the German Association of Tanning Chemists and Technicians.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2017
New Italian finishing equipment from Gemata
Roller coating takes a fresh approach and reciprocating spraying system functions have been newly developed by Gemata.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2016
Challenges facing fatliquors today
• The development, production and selling of fatliquors is no longer a simple process. • Challenges arise for tanneries and chemical companies alike as more lists of chemicals of concern to both the environment or to human health are established. • Innovation is an instrumental aspect of modern chemical companies. This encompasses sustainable sources of oils and the development of biodegradable and high exhaustion fatliquors. • Reliable chemical companies will ensure the strictest possible quality controls for all fatliquor raw materials and products as part of their customer service.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2016
The mechanisms of leather drying
The management of physical properties such as flexibility, looseness, texture, area and strength has been a focus of leather manufacture for over a century. Papers and book chapters covering the quality and conditions during drying have appeared on a regular basis over that period.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2016
Milling drum opens up new possibilities
Erretre’s latest version of the Ambra milling drum will give tanners the chance to make leathers with a feel and special effects that would have been impossible without the new technology, according to leather chemicals developer Stahl.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2016
Italian machinery builder Aletti leads in design and performance
Important technical development based upon the general success of wet buffing encouraged Aletti to now manufacture its well-known belt buffer (Velox) capable of both dry and wet buffing.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2016
Newly developed leather sprayingmachines bring robotics on board
French company Mercier Turner takes a bold step by marrying latest technology with 1950’s design of reciprocating spraying machines.
World Leather - June/July 2016
Studies on the determination of soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather. Part 1: Inter-laboratory test on soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather
A main task of the VGCT Commission “Leather Testing and Assessment” is the detailed examination for the determination of physical and colour fastness properties of leather, especially in terms of procedures. The intention is to detect performance characteristics of the procedures and to reveal and eliminate possible sources of error. Due to the trend for light-coloured leather for upholstery in the automotive and furniture sector, the soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather and its determination gain in importance. From the multiplicity of available test procedures for the characterisation of soiling and cleaning behaviour, the procedure VDA 230-212 was chosen and considered closely by means of an inter-laboratory test programme. In the context each procedural step was examined closely with regard to their impact on the final result of the test. Part 1 presents the results of the inter-laboratory test on soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather. Part 2 (to be published in World Leather later in 2016) will deal with the validation of an optimised mechanical cleaning step.
World Leather - Apr/May 2016
Robotics in leather making?
Italian machine builder Emmezeta brings it a step nearer.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2015
Tannery machinery design takes advantage of engineering developments
World Leather reviews recently redesigned machines in the Bergi range.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2015
Particles and potential losses
Within leather making there has always been a loss in value due to contamination arising from the presence of dust and particles. These problems can become apparent after dyeing operations where colour contamination can become obvious. Effects become increasingly clear during finishing where, at the point of film formation, dust and fibre can become entrapped within the finish. The way that tanners address these issues in practice is outlined in this paper.
World Leather - Apr/May 2015
Tanning Tech 2015 in Milan
Despite some initial doubts the decision to move this fair from the highly successful Bologna venue to the Milan Rho exhibition complex attracted substantial support from Italian and international visitors.
World Leather - Apr/May 2015
Innovation in drying: Cell Rotaring Conditioning
Toggle and vacuum drying are today the two most important methods of drying used by the tanner, with the former resulting in higher area yield and greater stiffness while the latter produces increased toughness with softness in the leather.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2014
A cultural revolution
Life sciences company SCD Probiotics has long encouraged companies using its technology platform to be creative. One customer in India decided to try the products, which are based on the actions of beneficial microbes, in tanning processes to great effect. The result is Proviera Biotech, a whole new spin-off that is now targeting the technology at tanneries around the world.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2014
Leather as part of a sustainable lifestyle
Many companies in the luxury sector are committed to advancing good social, environmental, and animal welfare practices, including sustainable sourcing practices. And because many of these companies offer footwear, clothing and accessories made from leather, there are important implications for tanners in these strategies of these companies’. They are already looking quite far ahead.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2014
Spray finishing by computer
Erretre have developed a rotary spraying machine equipped to control unwanted emissions whilst also creating a high performance product.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2014
A water-based coating system for lower-grade leather and splits
This environmentally sound coating system, known as Hydro PU Coating, is based on modern NMP- and NEP-free polyurethane (PU) polymers. It has been developed and fine-tuned over the past five years and is now in use at various manufacturing sites.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2014
X-Biomer: A new way forward in retanning chemistry
Sustainability is no longer an option, and it requires willingness to change and to think in new ways. For this reason traditional operations in the leather industry have to be challenged now, and a holistic perspective helps to direct the leather industry to meet its long term goals and responsibilities.
World Leather - Aug/Sept 2014
More versatility in pre-finishing machinery
Bergi, in particular, well established over a period of nearly fifty years in the development and manufacture of buffing, setting, dedusting and polishing machinery and then for its rollcoaters and rotary presses, is building new features into such equipment. Bertech, a younger member of the group, is drawing attention to its material handling equipment chiefly with stackers, and finished leather bundling machinery
World Leather - Apr/May 2014
Usage of vegetable tanning products beyond tanning
The use of vegetable tanning agents within leather making is well known for both tanning and the distinctive colours that these products provide. But these historic and present day uses of these natural products are not just restricted to the leather sector.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2013
Positive impact on communities
Raw materials development projects in Italy and Latin America by specialty leather chemicals manufacturer Silvateam have had important social impacts and represent good examples of corporate social responsibility in practice.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2013
Syntans: improved performance for automotive leathers
The development of syntans for the use in automotive leather has been driven by two major technical requirements: improved light fastness properties and low residual monomer concentration - such as phenol and formaldehyde - within these products. As a result of chemical developments, both of these requirements can finally be met. By Jochen Ammenn, BASF, Germany.
World Leather - June/July 2013
Migration of colour into water-based finishes
For the tannery supplying the automotive and upholstery markets, an important characteristic of the dyed leather is the stability of the colour when exposed to various extremes of temperature and humidity. This applies not only to the dyed crust leather but especially to the leathers with a finishing coat, as found in the car interior. By Campbell Page, Markus Hess and Gloria Diaz TFL Ledertechnik, Germany.
World Leather - June/July 2013
X-Lite - Aesthetic lightweight leather
Several important trends have been observed in the tanning industry during recent years. One of those is the reduction in both availability and quality of hides, leading to a greater demand for leather “upgrading”. Another increasing trend, especially regarding leather destined for use in the transportation industry, concerns weight reduction without compromising the aesthetic characteristics. By Dr. Marc Hombeck, Alexander Hippel, Christoph Roth and Christopher Tysoe from Lanxess, Germany.
World Leather - June/July 2013
The advantage of EasyWhite Tan leathers in retanning, dyeing and fatliquoring processes
Initially, EasyWhite Tan was developed for use in the manufacture of automotive leather. But during the early stages of development it became clear that its chrome-like character also made it suitable for use in a very wide range of articles, including shoe upper, garment, upholstery and vegetable type leathers.The advantage of EasyWhite Tan leathers in retanning, dyeing and fatliquoring processes
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2012
High-fastness fatliquors from sustainable resources
New fatliquors based on renewable raw materials have been developed that provide outstanding light and heat fastness performance together with excellent softening effects. This paper gives an overview of the chemistry of fatliquors, and compares the technical performance of these essential products on leather, with their environmental impact expressed as carbon footprint values.
World Leather - Apr/May 2012
Machines in the Tannery: Innovators & Research – Olcina Group
Spanish drum maker Olcina Group, the developer of the Cangilones drum system, has created Cangilones Next technology, the most revolutionary breakthrough in wet end processing in recent times.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2012
Phthalate-free plasticisers in nitrocellulose (NC) and cellulose acetobutyrate (CAB) systems
Lacquers are formulated to provide the finished leather with the required level of gloss and feel. Nitrocellulose (NC) and, to a lesser extent, cellulose acetobutyrate (CAB) lacquers are widely used.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2010
Link-Lock: an explanation of the chemical stabilisation of collagen
Chemical modifications of collagen, of the type known in the leather tanning industry, can raise the denaturation temperature, from 60ºC in its natural state, up to 130ºC. There are only a few chemical reactions known to be capable of achieving the highest values and these have long been assumed to be unrelated.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2010
Kotai, a tannery with an unusual take on leather
The Taiwanese tannery uses chemical-free dyes including one derived from leaves taken from a special tree in the mountain areas of Taiwan.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2010
Increasing the thermal behaviour of leather using a modified chrome hydrolysate
A low cost and easily manufactured product based on chrome leather hydroylsate has been developed that is very effective as a fire retarding agent. This product can be applied in the same manner as a retanning agent and shows good leather making possibilities.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2010
Effect of care products on leather properties
Upholstery leathers for furniture and automotive uses are subjected to intensive wear conditions. Cleaning and care at regular time intervals are therefore necessary, or at least highly recommended. The choice of a suitable care product for the respective leather type and the appropriate means of application deserve special attention.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2010
Sustainable leather finishing free of NMP and with reduced VOC
N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) was a popular solvent used in leather finishing for a considerable time. Mainly, it eased the production of binders and the application on leather, hence it was helpful in achieving good performance.
World Leather - Jun/Jul 2010
The automatic movement of leathers after dyeing
The movement of leathers following retannage and dyeing has always been problematical. Each day there are a various dyeings taking place, hence the risk of staining between different loads – both from splashing and from contaminated containers.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2009
Producing soft leather, consistently
With a reduced availability of the traditional oils used for fatliquoring, lecithin has become an important raw material for all leathers, particularly ones that need extra softness. Lecithin, a vegetable oil, has been incorporated into fatliquors comparatively recently. It is now difficult to imagine how we could produce the required buttery feel without this product. However, lecithin fatliquors are different to normally used oils, as they need more carefully controlled emulsification.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2009
Fatliquors and fatliquoring: Part 2
The history of leather-making, the development and functions of fatliquoring and the definition of a fatliquor were discussed in Part 1 of this paper, published in World Leather October 2007. Part 2 continues the overview of this complex subject, providing insight into the fatliquoring process, and the avoidance of problems within applications.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
Fatliquors and fatliquoring:a brief insight Part 2
The history of leather-making, the development and functions of fatliquoring and the definition of a fatliquor were discussed in Part 1 of this paper, published in World Leather October 2007. Part 2 continues the overview of this complex subject, providing insight into the fatliquoring process, and the avoidance of problems within applications.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
The structural upgrading of leather: A new micro-sphere application
The use of thermo-expandable microspheres in the retanning process for structural upgrading of collagen is a technology that opens up completely new possibilities. These opportunities include improvement in leather quality, and in turn achieve higher yields in terms of area utilisation with a more regular surface appearance.
World Leather - 07 - Nov 2007
Fatliquors and fatliquoring: a brief insight Part 1
Part 1 of this paper discusses the history of leather-making, the development and functions of fatliquoring and the definition of a fatliquor.
World Leather - 06 - Oct 2007
The application of modern biotechnology methods and the manufacture of quality leathers
The increased use of biotechnology methods by leading chemical supply companies is impacting the way that leather is produced today. Changes have resulted in improvements to the repeatability of processing, reductions in cost, and a decrease in the environmental footprint along with improvements in leather quality.
World Leather - 05 - Aug/Sept 2007
Zero formaldehyde resin retanning agents
Loosely applied definitions are a problem in the industry and there are many products that provide neither selective filling nor have this chemistry base.
World Leather - 02 - April 2007
The theory and practice of fatliquoring
Fatliquoring is an important step in the process of leather manufacture, as it is intended to lubricate the leather fibres. This results in softness and pliability and, at the same time, improves the mechanical properties of leathers.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2006
Fatliquoring: the heart of the wet end
Fatliquoring is carried out to impart softness and flexibility to leather by adding lubricating products during wet end processing. The fatty matter introduced into the skin acts as lubricant, and helps the fibres to slide against each other. The process also improves the physical and mechanical properties of the leather.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2006
A new generation of washable leather
Reactive dyes for wet blue and wet white.
World Leather - Oct 2006
A practical evaluation of replacement white retanning syntans
This study presents the findings from an evaluation made on commercial replacement syntans.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2006
Technologies to improve the useful area of leather
The manufacturing of leather is facing diverse challenges including pressure from the eco-toxicity point of view, in the form of stringent new regulations. The measures necessary to deal with these issues add to the cost pressure that tanners are experiencing.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2006
Optimum chrome tanning of hides and modified Thrublu process for lime-split hides
Chrome tanning for a long time enjoyed a unique position amongst tanners and almost 90% of leather produced is chrome tanned. A number of studies have been published suggesting that Chromium(III) itself may be toxic at higher levels and Chromium(VI) is a known carcinogen. So, tanners have to consider how best to modify their tanning process for better exhaustion of chrome and look for alternative means to minimise the impact of tanning on the environment.
World Leather - Nov 2005
The real cost of a kilo of salt
The following paper provides an overview of a different approach to tanning. The technique is managed in the ‘non-swelling’ pH zone, and thus eliminates the need for salt within the conventional acid pickle. The fibre stabilisation provided – somewhat similar to a pretannage with glutaraldehyde – allows strong leather characteristics, such as those provided by conventional chrome tannage, to be developed within a main tanning or retanning stage.
World Leather - Nov 2005
Hides and skins: Temperature and physical change
This article takes a look at the profound influence temperature has on the physical properties of hides and skins within every stage of leather manufacture.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2005
Colorimetry in the finishing process
Worldwide-web-supported system for colorimetry and colour formulation can be used to complement expertise in colour standardisation and formulation. This means in practice that there is no longer any need to send data or colour samples halfway round the world by post or courier to ensure that a recipe gives exactly the right shade.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2005
Hides and skins: Physical change and effects within chemical processing
The forces applied to skins in wet chemical processing relate to the type of processing vessel and its internal configuration. These forces can be viewed as constant when processing at uniform loadings, float levels, speed of rotation and time. We take a look how the way these forces act will vary as the skin physically changes.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2005
A practical evaluation of acrylic resins
This study describes a method for evaluating commercial acrylic resins as used in retannage. By means of in-house tests, this technique can prove useful to tanneries in the selection of resin retanning agents that, from a cost-effectiveness point of view, best suit their purposes.
World Leather - June/July 2005
A practical evaluation of dyestuffs
In recent years, following increases in the price of raw materials and chemicals, the competition of new markets such as China and India, and the introduction of ever stricter laws on pollution and environmental impact, it has become
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2005
Bating: gaining area while retaining cutting values
It is almost 100 years since Otto Röhm introduced the first industrial application of an enzymatic product. This was the bating process of animal hides within leather production, the enzymes being derived from pancreatic glands. This can be seen
World Leather - Oct 2004
Microscopical studies in leather manufacture - Part 3 of 4: Post tanning
The post tanning processes largely dictate the physical characteristics of a leather such as strength, softness extensibility and colour.
World Leather - Oct 2003
Back to basics: Part 7 of 9. Retanning, dyeing and softening
It is not possible to build the exact properties required into the leathers during the tanning operation. This applies in particular to chrome leathers, so it is common practice to develop the leather character by further wet processing of the shaved goods.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2002

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