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TECHNICAL LIBRARY

Featuring more than 1,000 searchable technical papers, business features, country commentaries and fashion articles from editions of World Leather going back to 2002. The papers are categorised into nine topics to make the library easy to navigate.


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RAW MATERIAL: Raw hides/skins and preservation

67 Items Found

 
Hides go to waste
Demand for high-quality leather remains strong, but no one in the global industry can be in any doubt that lower-value material is harder to sell than at any time in living memory. As a result, what we thought would never happen has come to pass: hides really are going to waste.
World Leather - Apr/May 2019
Arzignano is the leather industry’s Silicon Valley
The much travelled international sales director of leather chemicals group GSC, Diego Cisco, argues that the Arzignano tanning cluster, near his company’s headquarters in northern Italy, can offer an example of leadership, innovation and entrepreneurial spirit to the entire global leather industry.
World Leather - Jun/July 2018
Waterproofing innovation
Lanxess has introduced a self-emulsifying polymer that it says can help tanners produce leather with high levels of waterproofness from variable raw material.
World Leather - Apr/May 2018
Reduction of salt usage in leather processing
The issue of salt usage is one which the leather industry is still fighting to address. World Leather technical editor Mike Tomkin delves deeper into why it poses such a big problem and calls on the industry to do more to tackle it head-on.
World Leather - Apr/May 2018
Salting hides needs to stop
Meat consumption will continue and hides will continue to move from abattoirs into leather production. In this article, based on an influential speech he made at the third World Leather Congress in Shanghai in 2017, World Leather’s publisher and chief executive, Simon Yarwood, argues that what must not continue is the practice of salting those hides and shipping them across the oceans of the world so that the excess salt becomes someone else’s environmental problem.
World Leather - Apr/May 2018
Smit & zoon has big plans for India
At the recent India International Leather Fair (IILF) in Chennai, World Leather sat down with the CEO of Smit & zoon, Hans van Haarst, to discuss the leather chemical manufacturer’s plans for the Indian market, its Product Passport and the motivations behind its acquisition of Italian chemicals producer Codyeco.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2018
A new way of importing New Zealand sheepskins
Technical editor Mike Tomkin examines how New Zealand-based tanner Lowe Corporation is working to address some of the challenges it faces as an exporter of sheepskins.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2017
Developments in fatliquoring
At February’s IULTCS Congress in Chennai, Dirick von Behr, technical manager for leather at chemicals manufacturer Smit & zoon, presented a paper entitled “Method for determining the optimised exhaustion of fatliquors to minimise the ETP-inflow”. The paper referenced the upcoming changes in German regulations for the treatment of tannery wastewater. World Leather sat down with Mr von Behr to find out more.
World Leather - Apr/May 2017
greenLIFE 3: New renewable tanning technologies
Green Leather Industry for the Environment (greenLIFE) is a project run by a group of industry partners in Italy’s Arzignano tanning cluster. The project partners have committed to sharing their findings by publishing a series of papers in World Leather. The third of six greenLIFE articles comes courtesy of chemical supplier Ikem, one of the project’s partners.
World Leather - Apr/May 2017
Tackling “veininess”, Part two
The second and final part of a paper from Lanxess examining the best strategy for addressing the problem of veininess in hides. The first part appeared in World Leather December 2016-January 2017.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2017
ReVeal – the Dutch veal and calfskin industry opens its doors
Leather chemicals manufacturer Stahl hosted a one-day event called ReVeal last November. The aim was to give finished product brands up-to-date information about transparency and traceability in the leather supply chain, with the focus firmly on Dutch calf leather.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2016
Tackling “veininess”, Part one
Veininess usually refers to an unsightly defect visible on the grain linked to sunken veins. Nevertheless, prominent arteries too can result in downgrading of the leather, so it would be better to refer to “blood vessels”; however, for the sake of consistency the most commonly observed defect will be referred to as veininess.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2016
Focus on Automotive Leather: Better from Brazil
Improvements in livestock farming and in raw material handling are helping Brazilian packers produce better quality raw material, argues JBS Couros’s Guilherme Motta. He believes it could be time for automotive companies to make more use of Brazilian hides.
World Leather - June/July 2016
Focus on Automotive Leather: Cars claim a bigger shareas the cake gets smaller
Industry expert David Peters says the producers of automotive leather are enjoying some of the best times in their history at the moment, but that securing the ongoing availability of the right kind of raw material to keep meeting OEMs’ needs is a challenge the industry must face up to.
World Leather - June/July 2016
Studies on the determination of soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather. Part 1: Inter-laboratory test on soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather
A main task of the VGCT Commission “Leather Testing and Assessment” is the detailed examination for the determination of physical and colour fastness properties of leather, especially in terms of procedures. The intention is to detect performance characteristics of the procedures and to reveal and eliminate possible sources of error. Due to the trend for light-coloured leather for upholstery in the automotive and furniture sector, the soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather and its determination gain in importance. From the multiplicity of available test procedures for the characterisation of soiling and cleaning behaviour, the procedure VDA 230-212 was chosen and considered closely by means of an inter-laboratory test programme. In the context each procedural step was examined closely with regard to their impact on the final result of the test. Part 1 presents the results of the inter-laboratory test on soiling and cleaning behaviour of leather. Part 2 (to be published in World Leather later in 2016) will deal with the validation of an optimised mechanical cleaning step.
World Leather - Apr/May 2016
Glutaraldehyde: Proven technology for white metal-free leathers Part 1of 2: Pre-tanning with modified glutaraldehyde
The theory and practice of glutaraldehyde tanning Glutaraldehyde first received attention as a tanning agent in the 1960s. For monoaldehydes, the higher homologous species a reprogressively less effective tanning agents than formaldehyde. In general, the same applies to dialdehydes in relation to the smallest example glyoxal. However, glutaraldehyde is an exception to this rule as it is a very efficient tanning agent.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2015
Avoiding poor tensile strength values
The tensile strength of leather is a physical-mechanical property which is directly linked to the properties of the raw hide, chemical processing, and the physical operations involved in manufacturing a particular leather.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2015
The rise of automotive leather
As car manufacturers around the world report record sales and expanding production, the future looks rosy for their leather suppliers. However, it is not all plain sailing: battles over raw material are set to intensify and leather will have work to keep its place in the hearts of consumers.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2015
Somalia: The Berbera Tannery
The region that today encompasses Somaliland was home to the earliest civilization in the region. The most salient feature of this ancient civilization is thought to be the Laas Geel Neolithic cave paintings, which are among the oldest such rock art in Africa. These cave paintings are located in a site outside Hargeisa, the capital of the Somaliland region, and were untouched and intact for nearly 5-10,000 years until their recent rediscovery at the end of 2002.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2013
Composting sludges generated within tannery effluent treatment and other solid waste from leather manufacture
The composting of tannery sludge generated from full effluent treatment of wastewaters from vegetable and chrome tanning processes was investigated. On the basis of these studies all of the sludge from the effluent treatment plant and other organic waste from a tannery are now being composted on site on a full industrial scale.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2013
Tanneries for tourists but not for real leather manufacture
The conversion of raw skins into leather as a durable and protective product is among the earliest of crafts. Leather manufacture has now evolved into a sophisticated and technically developed industry but there are a few remaining examples that provide an illustration of early practices.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2013
Improvement of sheepskin quality after treatment against cockle with diazinon
Infestations of lice and keds are the cause of cockle defect and the reason for considerable loss in the value of sheepskins in Ethiopia. The findings from extensive trials on two breeds of sheep shows that the cockle defect can be eradicated, coupled with a significant improvement of both skin grades and value.
World Leather - Apr/May 2012
Innovation Part 1: Recycling and regeneration
Twenty world standard tanneries have opened their doors for in-depth study as part of Tannery of the Year Awards 2009 and 2011. Considerable technical information has been published in World Leather following these visits, and there has been an emphasis on environmental aspects. This article is the first in a series that picks out some of the highlights from the innovation stories these top tanneries have shared with us.
World Leather - Oct/Nov 2011
Expert questions Uttar Pradesh pollution ‘breakthrough’
The central pollution control board of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh claims to have come up with a new, salt-free method of preserving hides and has talked of compelling tanners to put the new technology into practice. But a seasoned industry observer has expressed doubt about the viability of the idea.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2011
Preservation and sustainable leather management
To protect leather against microbial attack, Lanxess is launching a new series of preserving agents based on eutectic technology.
World Leather - Apr/May 2011
Anthrax: danger in raw hides
Anthrax can be transmitted to human beings via endospores by entering broken skin and germinating there, being inhaled and germinating in the lungs or by being eaten and germinating in the gastrointestinal tract. Spores can form after the hide of an infected animal is flayed.
World Leather - Apr/May 2011
Variations within hides and skins PART 4: STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPECIES
The following information has been previously published in World Leather magazine: PART 1: The fibre structure of raw hides and skins (Oct/Nov 2009) PART 2: The effects of leather processing on the fibre structure (Feb/Mar 2010) PART 3: The influence of the fibre structure on leather characteristics (April/May 2010)
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2010
Small moulds can cause big problems
Asignificant cause of loss in value in leather processing is due to fungal or bacterial growth, and even biocidal agents fail in certain cases. These small microorganisms are not visible to the naked eye, and are normally only identified when the defect reaches a certain level.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2010
Variations within hides and skins: Part four
A look at the structural differences between species.
World Leather - Jun/Jul 2010
Variations within hides and skins
Part 3: Folding/ break characteristics
World Leather - Apr/May 2010
Medieval leathermaking lives on in Afghanistan
A significant proportion of Pakistan’s raw material supply comes from the war-torn country. Traders and hide/skin merchants salt, sort and select for export to Lahore, Karachi, Sialkot or Kasur by the truckload.
World Leather - Apr/May 2010
Variations within hides and skins
The structure of hides and skins is modified in leather making to make leathers with specified properties. Many of the natural variations found across a skin can be addressed to make both the appearance and physical properties more uniform. The following images indicate the effects of the major processing stages.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2010
New development in low salt pickling technology
Common salt used for the preservation of the raw hides and skins contributes the most to the effluent salinity, followed by the salt deriving from the pickling and tanning bath.
World Leather - Jun/Jul 2009
Variations within hides and skins PART 1: THE INFLUENCE OF THE FIBRE STRUCTURE
The natural structure of hides and skins has a fundamental influence on the physical properties and characteristics of each piece of leather.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2009
Advances in the degreasing of hides
A new lipase degreasing product provides additional benefits such as improved grain tightness, better flatness, cleanliness of the hide, improved dyeing levelness, and has the potential to reduce fogging characteristics and improve hydrophobing. In addition, the replacement of surfactants by lipase offers significant ecological benefits within the degreasing process and in the subsequent treatment of wastewaters.
World Leather - 05 - Aug/Sept 2008
The physical properties across a side and throughout a pack of leather
The objective of the original study was to determine a location on a piece of leather where the properties could be best related to a complete pack of leathers. These investigations were complex, and produced a vast amount of information. This was presented in a condensed form within the original four papers: these in turn have been used selectively to produce this profile on cross-hide and intra-pack variation.
World Leather - 04 - June/July 2008
Preserving agents in the leather production process
Due to extended times in transport and storage, leathers in the wet blue and wet white condition need protection against bacterial and fungal contamination. This is provided by synthetic preserving agents. However, triggered by new regulations, these agents and their use in the leather production process have become the focus of a number of chemical safety and consumer health issues.
World Leather - 03 - May 2008
Grain down splitting opens the way
The advent of the “upside down” grain down splitting machine developed several years ago by the Linta Company has made it possible to introduce new feeding and take off systems creating the splitting line. This, as well as the changed roller/knife mounting configuration, takes hands away from the dangerous band knife edge resulting in much greater safety.
World Leather - 03 - May 2008
A new aqueous transfer coating system for splits
Transfer coating of splits is a well-established process in leather finishing. The physical properties and the optical advantages are significant. The state-of-the-art technology is solvent-based systems, applied either via spraying technology or with rollers and doctor blades onto silicone matrices.
World Leather - 02 - April 2008
The Colombian leather sector: A renaissance banquet of feast and famine
The basis of the Renaissance was the willingness of people to adopt technology and concepts from other cultures. The Colombian leather sector, while very traditional, nevertheless still has a positive Renaissance outlook. Since there has been a very deep relationship between cattle ranching and leather, these facts can help explain the character of the leather sector.
World Leather - 02 - April 2008
Cross-hide variations in physical properties: The determination of the relative degree
There are considerable variations in the degree of resistance to stretch across the hide of a living animal. The areas of butt, backbone and across the rib cage do not need to stretch to the same degree as the belly, shanks and axillea parts. In addition, there are variations in the degree of stretch resistance in directions parallel and perpendicular to the backbone.
World Leather - 02 - April 2008
Bangladesh: analysis of the leather, footwear and leathergoods industry
The leather sector is perceived as one of the important economic sectors in Bangladesh. An important feature is that the businesses in this sector are privately owned, with only a few units belonging to multinational companies. Wet blue leather produced by the tanneries is generally sold in the local market, while a considerable volume of crust and finished leather, footwear and leather goods are exported.
World Leather - 02 - April 2008
Cross-hide variations in physical properties:
There are considerable variations in the degree of resistance to stretch across the hide of a living animal. The areas of butt, backbone and across the rib cage do not need to stretch to the same degree as the belly, shanks and axillea parts. In addition, there are variations in the degree of stretch resistance in directions parallel and perpendicular to the backbone. This variability is due to the non-uniform layout of collagen fibres within the skin which are aligned to differing degrees in different locations. Thus the starting material for leather manufacture is highly non-uniform. Subsequent manufacturing steps used to make leather will significantly modify this naturally occurring non-uniformity.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
The physical properties across a side and throughout a pack of leather
The information presented in this paper provides insight into the fundamental variations in the physical properties found throughout a pack of leather, and across a typical side/hide taken from that pack. The objective of the original study was to determine a location on a piece of leather where the properties could be best related to a complete pack of leathers. These investigations were complex, and produced a vast amount of information. This was presented in a condensed form within the original four papers: these in turn have been used selectively to produce this profile on cross-hide and intra-pack variation.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
Advances in the degreasing of hides
A new lipase degreasing product (1) is described that provides good degreasing when compared to the use of standard surfactants. It provides additional benefits such as improved grain tightness, better flatness, cleanliness of the hide, improved dyeing levelness, and has the potential to reduce fogging characteristics and improve hydrophobing. In addition, the replacement of surfactants by lipase offers significant ecological benefits within the degreasing process and in the subsequent treatment of wastewaters.
World Leather - 01 - Feb/Mar 2008
Reducing the amount of salt required for hide and skin preservation
In Pakistan the most common method of curing is by salting. But all of this salt is subsequently removed and most of this enters tannery effluent where it can only be removed under extreme conditions. It is also the major source of salinity found in tannery effluents.
World Leather - 08 - Dec/Jan 2007
The regeneration of used salt from curing
One of the major problems that the leather industry needs to address is the issue of salinity. It is well known that most of the salt component in tannery effluents is generated from the salt used for preservation of hides and skins. There is always an excess of salt applied to ensure a complete cure, so, as a first step to reduce salinity, this surplus can be shaken from the hides and skins before beginning the soaking process. Various methods are used, but the question then arises, what happens to this contaminated salt?
World Leather - 08 - Dec/Jan 2007
The application of modern biotechnology methods and the manufacture of quality leathers
The increased use of biotechnology methods by leading chemical supply companies is impacting the way that leather is produced today. Changes have resulted in improvements to the repeatability of processing, reductions in cost, and a decrease in the environmental footprint along with improvements in leather quality.
World Leather - 05 - Aug/Sept 2007
Swelling within the leather manufacturing process
Swelling is the increase of volume of a material due to the absorption and/or retention of a solvent, by structural changes or heat. The word implies a shift from the norm, or a comparison to a less distended state.
World Leather - Nov 2006
Technologies to improve the useful area of leather
The manufacturing of leather is facing diverse challenges including pressure from the eco-toxicity point of view, in the form of stringent new regulations. The measures necessary to deal with these issues add to the cost pressure that tanners are experiencing.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2006
The properties of leather: strength and stretch
Strength and stretch across the skin area and the effect of splitting.
World Leather - June/July 2006
Back to Basics: A framework for leather manufacture. Essay 12
Reciprocating multi-roller machines: The fleshing machine in operation.
World Leather - April 2006
The potential of silicates in leather production. Part 2
Benefits with new chemical procedures, and the development of a new commodity.
World Leather - April 2006
Back to Basics: A framework for leather manufacture. Essay 11
Although there is considerable information available on the construction of machines in the tannery, there is very little detail available on the engineering principles involved. Moreover, there is even less information available concerning the way that forces are absorbed by hides and skins under different conditions, and the outcomes from these interactions.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2006
The resistance of wet-white pre-tanning systems to mould growth
The resistance of wet-white pre-tanning systems to mould growth when supported by various fungicides
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2006
The potential of silicates in leather production. Part 1
Salt-free curing of hides and skins and reducing the salt content of tannery effluents.
World Leather - Feb/Mar 2006
The real cost of a kilo of salt
The following paper provides an overview of a different approach to tanning. The technique is managed in the ‘non-swelling’ pH zone, and thus eliminates the need for salt within the conventional acid pickle. The fibre stabilisation provided – somewhat similar to a pretannage with glutaraldehyde – allows strong leather characteristics, such as those provided by conventional chrome tannage, to be developed within a main tanning or retanning stage.
World Leather - Nov 2005
Optimum chrome tanning of hides and modified Thrublu process for lime-split hides
Chrome tanning for a long time enjoyed a unique position amongst tanners and almost 90% of leather produced is chrome tanned. A number of studies have been published suggesting that Chromium(III) itself may be toxic at higher levels and Chromium(VI) is a known carcinogen. So, tanners have to consider how best to modify their tanning process for better exhaustion of chrome and look for alternative means to minimise the impact of tanning on the environment.
World Leather - Nov 2005
Back to Basics: Modifying the skin structure & Hides and skins and mechanical forces
Essay 1: Before first-time drying and the formation of a flat stable substrate, the conversion of hides and skins into leather can be viewed as two distinct stages: the removal of unwanted skin components and the location of specific materials within the collagen structure. Essay 2: The role of the process vessel in leather manufacture is greater than that of a chemical reactor. While chemical reactions take place, considerable forces are applied to the goods undergoing process. The way these forces are received, and the outcome, strongly affects the chemical distribution within each hide or skin.
World Leather - Nov 2005
The replacement of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) as degreasing agents in wet blue manufacture
The debate continues over whether NP and NPE represent a serious insult to the environment, but there is no longer any doubt about the direction of regulatory control. Increasingly, tanners sourcing wet blue are requiring that it be certified as NPE-free, but a wide range of alternatives now addresses their concerns about substituting NP/NPE technology with more environmentally desirable alternatives. World Leather takes a look.
World Leather - Oct 2005
Removing phospholipids from hides: Looking back on a “New perspective on wet processing”
The paper "New perspective on wet processing" was published in World Leather October/November 1993, in which the advantages offered by the removal of phospholipids were discussed. Given that the value of raw hides and leather selling prices - strongly influenced by area and quality - are so important to the tanner, perhaps it's time to re-evaluate this technology.
World Leather - Oct 2005
Hides and skins: Temperature and physical change
This article takes a look at the profound influence temperature has on the physical properties of hides and skins within every stage of leather manufacture.
World Leather - Aug/Sep 2005
Elephant leather: exclusive in structure and grain enamel
The two surviving elephant species are the only remnants of the once blooming group Proboscideans. Their ancestors lived during the Oligocene period 35 million years ago.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2004
Bating: gaining area while retaining cutting values
It is almost 100 years since Otto Röhm introduced the first industrial application of an enzymatic product. This was the bating process of animal hides within leather production, the enzymes being derived from pancreatic glands. This can be seen
World Leather - Oct 2004
The ruminant stomach: not just sausages and animal food
The two outer layers of the stomach are of no interest to the leather industry. They may be viewed as the equivalent to the subcutis from hides and skins. The internal layer of the stomach - the gastric mucosa - is the part most suitable for the tanning industry and may be compared with the corium.
World Leather - Dec/Jan 2003
Weight = area?
Within the leather making sector the preference for hide purchases based on area instead of weight have been the subject of debate and investigation. However, neither measurement by weight nor area provides a truly accurate yardstick for predicting either yields or costings.
World Leather - Nov 2003
Round hides into flat leather
The need for flat shoe upper material, with predictable stretch, set and ‘memory’, are well appreciated in footwear manufacture. Leather can provide these properties. Nevertheless, given the basic uniqueness of each raw hide, the degree of uniformity achieved as a result of conversion into leather is perhaps surprising.
World Leather - June/July 2003

Quaker Color D

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